author =       "David Johnson and Tim Stack and Russ Fish and Daniel
                  Montrallo Flickinger and Leigh Stoller and Robert Ricci and
                  Jay Lepreau",
  title =        "Mobile {Emulab}: A Robotic Wireless and Sensor Network
  booktitle =    "Proc.\ {IEEE} {INFOCOM} 2006",
  address =      "Barcelona, Spain",
  year =         2006,
  month =        apr,

  abstract =     "Simulation has been the dominant research methodology in
                  wireless and sensor networking.  When mobility is added,
                  real-world experimentation is especially rare.  However, it
                  is becoming clear that simulation models do not sufficiently
                  capture radio and sensor irregularity in a complex,
                  real-world environment, especially indoors.  Unfortunately,
                  the high labor and equipment costs of truly mobile
                  experimental infrastructure present high barriers to such

                  \par We describe our experience in creating a testbed to
                  lower those barriers.  We have extended the Emulab network
                  testbed software to provide the first remotely-accessible
                  mobile wireless and sensor testbed.  Robots carry motes and
                  single board computers through a fixed indoor field of
                  sensor-equipped motes, all running the user's selected
                  software.  In real-time, interactively or driven by a script,
                  remote users can position the robots, control all the
                  computers and network interfaces, run arbitrary programs, and
                  log data.  Our mobile testbed provides simple path planning,
                  a vision-based tracking system accurate to 1~cm, live maps,
                  and webcams.  Precise positioning and automation allow quick
                  and painless evaluation of location and mobility effects on
                  wireless protocols, location algorithms, and sensor-driven
                  applications.  The system is robust enough that it is
                  deployed for public use.

                  \par We present the design and implementation of our mobile
                  testbed, evaluate key aspects of its performance, and
                  describe a few experiments demonstrating its generality and